THE PRIME MINISTER
THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM
Independence - Freedom - Happiness
Hanoi, July 26, 2022
Approving the National Climate Change Strategy
THE PRIME MINISTER
Pursuant to the June 19, 2015 Law on Organization of the Government; and the November 22, 2019 Law Amending and Supplementing a Number of Articles of the Law on Organization of the Government and the Law on Organization of Local Administration;
Pursuant to the Government’s Resolution No. 06/NQ-CP of January 21, 2021, promulgating the Action Plan to continue implementing the 11th Party Central Committee’s Resolution No. 24-NQ/TW, on proactive response to climate change and enhancement of natural resource management and environmental protection under the Political Bureau’s Conclusion No. 56-KL/TW of August 23, 2019;
Pursuant to the Government’s Resolution No. 50/NQ-CP of May 20, 2021, on the Government’s Action Program to implement the Resolution of the 13th National Party Congress;
At the proposal of the Minister of Natural Resources and Environment,
Article 1. To approve the National Climate Change Strategy through 2050 (below referred to as the Strategy) with the following principal contents:
Climate change has become an irreversible trend and the biggest challenge for humanity, which has been affecting all global economic, political, diplomatic and security activities. Every country has to proactively adapt to climate change in order to limit negative impacts and is responsible for reducing greenhouse gas emissions according to the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the Paris Agreement on Climate Change from 2021 onward to keep global temperature rise at 1.5°C by the end of this century.
Net-zero emissions by 2050 is the world’s inevitable development goal, which can be achieved mainly through strong energy transition and low-emission development. This is also a new “rule of the game” on global trade and investment that has been established since the 26th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP26). Therefore, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and transiting from fossil fuels to clean and renewable energy will open up an opportunity to promote economic restructuring toward sustainability, improve the competitiveness of the economy and best utilize trade and investment cooperation opportunities for development.
Over the recent years, the response to climate change has recorded important initial achievements. However, in the face of climate change trends and the new global context, the response to climate change in our country must shift to a new stage, which should be placed at the center, aiming at fulfillment of global goals, and be implemented effectively, substantively and transparently and, at the same time, facilitate the building of a green, circular and environmentally friendly economy, contributing to making Vietnam a developed, high-income country by 2045.
1. Adaptation to climate change and achievement of net-zero emissions constitute an opportunity for sustainable development, and is the highest priority in development decisions and the highest ethical standards of all authorities, sectors, enterprises and people.
2. Response to climate change shall be carried out on the principles of justice and fairness, with a global and people-wide approach; based on synchronous institutions, effective and efficient policies and laws, science, technology and innovation, and promotion of internal resources and international cooperation, thus contributing to building and developing an independent and self-reliant economy ready for international integration.
3. Response to climate change is the responsibility of the entire political system, every citizen and the entire society. The State plays a facilitating and leading role; people and enterprises play a central role and act as the implementing subjects with the effective participation of socio-political organizations.
4. To implement urgent solutions to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience to the impacts of climate change; to give the highest priority to ensuring safety and livelihood for people in areas at risk of being severely affected by climate change; to focus on developing infrastructure facilities in response to climate change and energy transition based on potential and advantages of different areas and regions.
5. To concentrate resources on responding to climate change, developing financial mechanisms and the carbon market, and promoting the shift of investment in low-emission economic development; to bring into fullest play the State’s resources to promote the attraction of resources of organizations, enterprises and individuals and international resources, and boost public-private cooperation on the basis of equality, cooperation and mutual benefit.
1. General objectives
To take the initiative in effectively adapting to climate change and reducing vulnerability, losses and damage caused by climate change; to reduce greenhouse gas emissions according to the net-zero emissions goal by 2050, thus making positive and responsible contributions to the international community in protecting the Earth’s climate system; to best utilize opportunities brought about by climate change response in order to change the growth model and improve the resilience and competitiveness of the economy.
2. Specific objectives and targets
a/ Adaptation to climate change
To reduce vulnerability and risks to the impacts of climate change through raising the resilience and adaptability of natural, economic and social systems, and mitigate damage caused by disasters and extreme climate phenomena increased due to climate change.
- By 2030:
To control the degradation of water and land resources, thereby ensuring sufficient water sources for daily-life, industrial and service activities and important economic sectors.
To restructure crops and livestock toward smart adaptation to climate change; to develop sustainable agro-forestry-fishery product value chains; to ensure national food security and nutrition balance.
To ensure that the forest coverage will be at least 42%; the total area of terrestrial protected areas will account for 9% of the land territory area, and the area of protected marine and coastal areas will make up at least 5% of the country’s total area of maritime zones.
To complete important infrastructure facilities in adaptation to climate change up to safety standards against disasters, particularly facilities for disaster, high tide and saltwater intrusion prevention, and freshwater storage facilities serving daily-life and production activities and inundation prevention in major cities.
To ensure that at least 95% of the population will be provided with clean water and hygienic water, at least 80% of whom will have access to standard clean water; to meet the demand for prevention and control of epidemics and diseases and emerging diseases due to climate change.
To ensure that the level of science and technology for hydro-meteorological forecasting and early warning of disasters will be on par with that of the developed countries in Asia; and that the capacity to monitor climate change and manage disaster risks will be on par with leading countries in the region; to meet the needs for basic climate services.
To ensure that 80% of total households in disaster-frequented areas will have safe houses; to complete the relocation of at least 70% of households living in places highly prone to flashfloods and landslides to safe places; for areas where it is impossible to relocate the population, to install monitoring, surveillance and warning systems in order to promptly evacuate the people and minimize risks when disasters occur; to ensure that all overflown underground areas will be monitored with inundation depth warning.
- By 2050:
To effectively manage water and land resources and improve environmental quality serving socio-economic development; to firmly ensure security of national water resources; to continue developing a modern smart agriculture that can effectively adapt to climate change and have high added value.
To keep the forest coverage stable at 43% and ensure the national forest area; to improve forest quality and ensure sustainable forest management; to ensure that the total area of marine and coastal protected areas will account for 6% of the country’s total area of maritime zones; to effectively restore and conserve important natural ecosystems, endangered species and precious and rare genetic resources; to fully valuate and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystem services which will bring essential benefits to all people, contributing to ecological security assurance.
To develop synchronous and modern economic and social infrastructure systems in order to effectively adapt to sea level rise and climate change impacts; to ensure that the entire population will be provided with clean and hygienic water, of whom at least 90% will have access to standard clean water, and that all citizens will have access to healthcare services.
To ensure that the level and capacity of disaster forecasting and warning, climate change monitoring and disaster risk management will be equivalent to that of the developed countries; and that climate services will meet socio-economic development requirements; to improve the resilience of disaster prevention facilities, thus ensuring safety in case of disasters as designed, taking into account the impacts of climate change.
To ensure that all people will be safe from disasters and climate risks; to ensure the relocation of all households living in places highly prone to flashfloods and landslides to safe places; all households in disaster-frequented areas will have safe houses; to provide disaster risk insurance for production and business activities and assets of enterprises and the society.
b/ Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
To strive to achieve the goal of net-zero emissions by 2050 and make active and responsible contributions to the international community in protecting the Earth’s climate system; to improve the growth quality and competitiveness of the economy.
- By 2030, to ensure that the total amount of national greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced by 43.5% compared to the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, in which the energy sector will see a drop of 32.6% with the amount of emissions not exceeding 457 million tons of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq); the agriculture sector, a 43% reduction with the amount of emissions not exceeding 64 million tons of CO2-eq; the forestry and land use sector, a 70% reduction in the amount of emissions and a 20% increase in the amount of carbon sequestration, with the total amount of emissions and sequestration reaching at least -95 million tons of CO2-eq; the waste sector, a drop of 60.7% with the amount of emissions not exceeding 18 million tons of CO2-eq; and the sector of industrial processes, a 38.3% reduction with the amount of emissions not exceeding 86 million tons of CO2-eq. Facilities generating an annual amount of greenhouse gas emissions of 2,000 tons of CO2-eq or more will be obligated to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.
- By 2050, to ensure that the total amount of national greenhouse gas emissions will reach the net-zero emissions level; the amount of emissions will reach a peak in 2035 then decline rapidly, in which the energy sector will see a reduction of 91.6% with the amount of emissions not exceeding 101 million tons of CO2-eq; the agriculture sector, a drop of 63.1% with the amount of emissions not exceeding 56 million tons of CO2-eq; the forestry and land use sector, a 90% reduction in the amount of emissions and a 30% increase in the amount of carbon sequestration, with the total amount of emissions and sequestration reaching at least -185 million tons of CO2-eq; the waste sector, a drop of 90.7% with the amount of emissions not exceeding 8 million tons of CO2-eq; and the sector of industrial processes, a 84.8% reduction with the amount of emissions not exceeding 20 million tons of CO2-eq. Facilities generating an annual amount of greenhouse gas emissions of 200 tons of CO2-eq or more will be obligated to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.
IV. TASKS AND SOLUTIONS
1. Proactively adapting to climate change
a/ Improving the resilience and adaptability of natural, economic and social systems, ensuring sustainable livelihood for the people
- Preventing the decline or degradation of, and restoring, natural resources
To focus on protecting and restoring water resources; to formulate and implement the national master plan on water resources and river basins; to identify areas in need of strict protection and strictly manage groundwater extraction activities; to prevent and control degradation, depletion and pollution of water sources; to improve and restore degraded, depleted and polluted water sources, and strengthen solutions for management, exploitation and economical and efficient use of water sources, attaching importance to areas prone to drought or water shortage or adversely impacted by saltwater intrusion; to ensure water resource security; to undertake cooperation and ensure equal and reasonable sharing of benefits in the exploitation, use, protection and development of cross-border water sources. From now to 2030, to focus on properly controlling the degradation and depletion of water resources; to improve the efficiency of water resource management by integrated approach to meet the water use needs of sectors, improve environmental quality, minimize impacts and prevent disasters caused by water to serve the people’s lives and socio-economic development.
To rationally and effectively exploit unused land areas and riverine and coastal alluvial areas for forest development and development of greeneries in urban areas and industrial parks; to promote the development of urban areas, industrial parks and export processing zones in a circular model, and reserve land areas for the development of inter-regional and inter-provincial waste treatment and recycling zones; to intensify solutions to improve and protect the soil and water environments and biodiversity, particularly for degraded land areas for agricultural production; to prevent and minimize soil degradation and pollution; to strictly manage mineral resources used as common construction materials, and ensure the prevention and control of landslides, subsidence, groundwater degradation and saltwater intrusion.
- Agriculture and food security
To build a smart, modern, climate change-adaptable agriculture of high added value; to firmly ensure national food security and nutrition balance; to promote agricultural restructuring and implement smart agricultural solutions in adaptation to climate change; to exploit and bring into play advantages of a tropical agriculture; to develop models of organic agriculture, ecological agriculture and environmentally friendly agriculture; to restructure crops and livestock and ensure sustainable aquaculture and fishing; to improve the resilience and adaptation of agriculture to climate change in all regions and areas.
From now to 2030, to focus on restructuring crops and livestock toward smart adaptation to climate change and development of sustainable agro-forestry-fishery product value chains; to ensure national food security and nutrition balance; to plan zones for production and development of a large-scale concentrated commodity agriculture toward modernity and application of high technology and scientific advances; to restructure crops and develop a sustainable agriculture based on natural advantages of each region and market demands; to promote aquaculture and exploitation, protection and development of aquatic resources of high added value; to use part of the area under rice cultivation for growing annual crops or for rice cultivation combined with aquaculture.
- Forests and ecosystems
To manage and strictly protect existing natural forests; to raise the protection capacity of watershed forests and coastal forests; to develop large-timber forests and restore forest landscapes; to sustainably manage forest resources associated with biodiversity protection and improvement of ecosystem services; to increase community participation in the forest protection, management and development in order to improve their livelihood and increase their income and employment opportunities in the forestry sector; to manage ecosystems and biodiversity; to increase the recovery of natural ecosystems and protect and conserve biodiversity against impacts of climate change and sea level rise.
From now to 2030, to focus on protecting forests and limiting the repurposing of forests, particularly natural forests; to promote restoration and improve the quality and protection capacity of coastal forests and watershed protection forests; to consolidate wildfire monitoring, evaluation and emergency response systems; to increase greenery areas in urban areas; to establish and expand the operation of marine protected areas and nature reserves; to develop climate change adaptation models based on nature, ecosystems and the community; to carry out biodiversity inventory and evaluation and build a national biodiversity database.
- Developing infrastructure facilities in adaptation to climate change
To assess impacts, vulnerability, risks, losses and damage caused by climate change when formulating master plans and investing in development of infrastructure facilities of industrial parks, urban areas, residential areas and coastal and island resettlement areas on the basis of disaster risk zoning and climate change scenarios; to focus on synchronous development of economic and social infrastructure systems, attaching importance to multi-purpose facilities in adaptation to climate change and inter-regional facilities; to improve the resilience and adaptability of all economic sectors to climate change; to build, upgrade and renovate urban infrastructure facilities, concentrated residential areas, industrial parks and coastal and island resettlement areas; to develop urban areas, coastal urban areas, marine tourism centers, ecotourism and historical-cultural relics; to prevent and combat inundation for urban areas in the context of climate change and sea level rise.
From now to 2030, to prioritize the construction of green buildings and development of urban greeneries, upgrading of water drainage systems, and prevention and combat of inundation caused by heavy rains, floods, high tides and storm surges for major cities and coastal cities; to upgrade and renovate transport facilities in areas highly prone to disasters and vulnerable to climate change; to develop and complete the network of expressways and inter-regional transport systems; to complete important infrastructure facilities necessary for response to climate change, particularly facilities for prevention of disasters, high tides and saltwater intrusion, freshwater storage facilities for daily-life and production activities, and for inundation control in major cities; to build new multi-purpose large reservoirs in drought-stricken areas and water-scarce areas as suitable to natural conditions of such areas, ensuring their efficiency for socio-economic development.
- Health and well-being
To intensify the implementation of solutions to provide clean water to rural, mountainous and coastal areas, particularly areas affected by storms, floods, drought and saltwater intrusion; to develop medical and healthcare networks to meet the requirements of prevention and control of epidemics and diseases emerging from climate change; to ensure environmental sanitation conditions; to invest in the development of technologies and equipment for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by climate change; to develop and widely apply models of the health sector and community well-being in order to improve the resilience of communities and adapt to climate change.
From now to 2030, to focus on consolidating the water supply infrastructure system and building capacity to provide clean water for the population; to develop medical, healthcare and epidemic prevention and control networks, giving priority to vulnerable people and ethnic minority areas; to strengthen systems for monitoring and early warning of impacts of climate change on human health.
- Ensuring social security and gender equality
To develop sustainable livelihood models, attaching importance to vocational training and job change, and provide technological and funding support for people in risk-prone areas vulnerable to the impacts of climate change; to raise awareness, knowledge and capacity of disaster risk management and climate change adaptation for officials, members of the women’s union, the youth and people, particularly in areas highly prone to disasters.
From now to 2030, to strengthen the role, capacity and participation of women and youth in climate change adaptation and disaster risk management activities; to launch movements and intensify activities to improve the young people’s awareness and knowledge about climate change and solutions in disaster preparedness and adaptation to climate change.
b/ Mitigating damage caused by disasters and extreme climate phenomena due to climate change
- Forecasting and early warning
To increase investment in, upgrade and modernize climate change, hydro-meteorological and earthquake and tsunami monitoring networks, and specialized disaster monitoring systems, particularly for storms, rains, floods, flashfloods, inundation, landslides and riverine and coastal landslides.
To upgrade and modernize technologies for weather and disaster monitoring, analysis, forecasting and warning; to apply advanced and modern forecasting technologies; to prioritize the development of technologies for quantitative precipitation forecast, flashflood and landslide warning, and impact-based forecasting; to improve capacity of providers of climate services and information serving disaster preparedness; to expand terrestrial satellite communications stations, mobile communications equipment and satellite-based vessel monitoring systems to ensure complete, accurate and timely broadcasting and transmission of information to all localities and people across the country and vessels operating at sea; to effectively operate the disaster alert system, combined with the national information and communications infrastructure system.
From now to 2030, to focus on developing scientific and technological potential for hydrometeorology and disaster forecasting and warning on par with that of the developed countries in Asia; to raise the climate change monitoring capacity on par with that of leading countries in the region; to meet basic climate service needs; to mobilize social resources for a number of extreme climate monitoring activities, giving priority to automatic rain gauge systems; to complete the assessment of climate and disaster risks, zoning of climate and disaster risk areas and drawing of disaster alert maps; to build and complete a national database on climate change.
- Disaster prevention facilities
To promptly and effectively implement disaster preparedness solutions and minimize risks posed by impacts of climate change, attaching importance to areas highly prone to storms, floods, flashfloods, inundation, landslides and drought; to prevent, avoid, and limit the impacts of, high tides, saltwater intrusion, riverine landslides, coastal erosion and sea level rise; to build and upgrade disaster prevention facilities in areas frequented by storms, floods, inundation, flashfloods and landslides.
To consolidate, upgrade and complete the system of river dikes, sea dikes, hydraulic structures and hydropower works to ensure proactive prevention and control of floods and storms according to their designs and ensure safety against greater impacts of climate change; to prioritize the assurance of safety for reservoirs, dams, river dikes and sea dikes; to build and upgrade storm shelters for ships and boats under relevant master plans, associated with fishing logistics and information services, including also island areas; to build and consolidate facilities for prevention of riverine and coastal landslides in areas with complicated landslides, seriously threatening dikes, densely populated areas and important infrastructure facilities; to combine building and non-building solutions, ensuring economic, social and environmental efficiency and optimizing development resources; to build capacity to prevent flashfloods, landslides, storms, and extreme floods; to prevent and mitigate harmful effects of drought, high tides and saltwater intrusion.
- Ensuring safety for the people’s lives and property against impacts of climate change
To plan, invest in, and rearrange residential areas and organize relocation in areas frequently affected by extreme climate phenomena, particularly areas highly prone to storms, floods, storm surges or riverine or coastal erosion, or prone to flashfloods, landslides, land subsidence or geological hazards; for areas for which relocation cannot yet be organized, it is required to carry out monitoring and warning to ensure prompt evacuation and minimize risks.
To intensify the implementation of measures to ensure safety for people, particularly for vulnerable people in areas frequently affected by extreme climate phenomena and disasters; to build disaster-safe houses associated with new-style countryside building; to build community houses concurrently used as places for people’s evacuation; to build capacity of search, rescue and salvage forces and ensure security and social order and safety; to provide insurance for production and business activities and assets of enterprises and the society; before 2030, to provide disaster risk insurance for production and business activities in such high-risk areas as crop production and aquaculture.
2. Regarding reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
a/ General tasks on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
- By 2030:
To formulate and implement an action plan to reduce methane emissions by 30% compared to 2020; to formulate and implement a plan to manage and eliminate greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances; to formulate and implement a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of different sectors according to the roadmap to reach the net-zero emissions by 2050. From 2022, to carry out greenhouse gas inventory and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for facilities emitting 3,000 tons of CO2-eq or more every year; to encourage other emitting facilities, particularly those in the public sector, to carry out greenhouse gas inventory and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
To set total greenhouse gas emission quotas and organize the allocation of greenhouse gas emission quotas to greenhouse gas-emitting facilities subject to greenhouse gas inventory from 2026; to build and complete an online database on greenhouse gas inventory and measuring, reporting and verification of greenhouse gas emission reduction activities; to set a nationally specific greenhouse gas emission coefficient for major emission sources accounting for 0.1% of total national greenhouse gas emissions; to periodically update the list of emission coefficients for greenhouse gas inventory.
State agencies, socio-political organizations and enterprises shall take measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their daily activities and in investment and public procurement, including energy efficiency measures, green buildings, sustainable cooling, and use of battery-operated electric vehicles and energy-efficient appliances; to promote investment projects to apply technologies and production processes and provide services with low greenhouse-gas emissions and participate in cooperation mechanisms and forms for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with law and in conformity with their conditions and operation.
- By 2050:
To formulate and implement an action plan to reduce methane emissions by 40% compared to 2030; to formulate and implement a plan to manage and eliminate greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances; to continue formulating and implementing plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of different sectors according to roadmap to reach the net-zero emissions by 2050.
From 2030, to carry out greenhouse gas inventory and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for facilities that annually emit 2,000 tons of CO2-eq or more; from 2040, for facilities that annually emit 500 tons of CO2-eq or more; and from 2050, for facilities that annually emit 200 tons of CO2-eq or more. All facilities in the public sector shall carry out greenhouse gas inventory and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
To make greenhouse gas emission reduction in daily activities become a matter of business ethics and social responsibility of organizations and enterprises.
b/ Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by sector
- In the energy sector
+ Regarding energy supply:
To step up the implementation of clean energy development and energy efficiency solutions and breakthrough technology solutions in the future while ensuring national energy security.
To continue developing small hydropower plants in a selective manner that meet environmental protection standards; to expand a number of medium- and large-sized hydropower plants to maximize the efficiency of hydropower; to increase the capacity of concentrated solar power plants, rooftop solar power plants, onshore wind power farms, offshore wind power farms, and biomass power plants, and develop hydrogen fuel, ammonia and tidal and sea wave energy technologies. By 2030, the proportion of renewable energy sources, including hydropower, wind power, solar power and biomass, will account for at least 33% of gross electricity generation. By 2050, the share of renewable energy sources will account for at least 55% of gross electricity generation.
To gradually transit coal power to cleaner energy sources; to reduce the proportion of fossil fuel sources by no longer developing new coal-fired power projects after 2030 and gradually reducing the coal power output after 2035; to gradually apply the technology for conversion into clean, zero-emission fuels for fossil fuel plants, aiming to minimize the amount of fossil fuels for power generation by 2050; to consider developing nuclear power with modern and safe technologies at the appropriate time.
To develop energy storage technologies, including storage batteries, storage hydropower, heat storage, etc., and smart grids, ensuring the stability and integration of renewable energy in the power system at a high rate; to upgrade energy transmission and distribution systems in order to increase efficiency, reduce loss and efficiently support integration of renewable energy sources; to research and apply carbon capture and storage technology for fossil-fuel power plants and industrial production establishments.
+ Regarding energy use:
To intensify the implementation of energy efficiency solutions and promote the transition to clean energy in the fields of industry, agriculture, transport, service, commerce and civil use; to increase the penetration rate of energy-efficient and high-performance equipment in the fields of industry, civil use and commerce; to raise the performance of boilers, electric motors, heat supply, concentrated cooling and electrical appliances; to step by step use hydrogen in replacement of coal in metallurgy and service and trade sectors; to electrify agriculture and use energy-efficient equipment in post-harvest agricultural production chains.
To build heat-resistant works and houses, use nature-based solutions for green cooling with a view to reducing the effect of urban heat island, and use materials with low greenhouse gas emissions and recycled materials; to develop and apply technical regulations and standards on energy efficiency in buildings; to promote energy efficiency solutions and innovative business models for cooling equipment, air conditioners and smart lighting systems; to raise energy efficiency of cold chain equipment and systems and promote the use of renewable energy for cold supply and storage systems.
To efficiently use energy in transport through applying fuel consumption standards and emission norms; to work out and implement a roadmap for transition to use of clean fuels for vehicles; to gradually increase the proportion of electric and hydrogen vehicles; to develop clean energy industry, produce and use electric and hydrogen vehicles; to produce new-generation batteries and energy-efficient semiconductors; to develop green transport infrastructure systems.
To restructure the transport market, covering the transition from road transport to inland waterway transport and coastal shipping; to shift from road transport to railway transport and increase railway freight transport; to increase transport performance through building and expanding the road network and the North-South express railway; to shift from private vehicles to mass transit vehicles; to build metro systems in major cities.
- In the agriculture sector
To apply emission reduction measures in the agriculture sector, such as management and technology innovation measures in crop production and livestock production, change of land use methods, development of low-emission agricultural value chains, and post-harvest processing and preservation.
To develop sustainable organic agriculture, carry out crop restructuring and integrated crop management, and increase the area of wet rice and long-term crops receiving economical and smart irrigation; to transform agricultural farming models toward low emissions; to improve feed rations in animal husbandry.
To reuse crop by-products and treat livestock wastes for use as organic fertilizers and biogas; to use composts and reduce chemical fertilizers; to replace urea fertilizer with low-emission fertilizers.
To apply advanced measures in agricultural production so as to reduce methane emissions from rice cultivation and animal husbandry; to reduce post-harvest food loss and related emissions through improving agricultural logistics and developing sustainable cold chains.
- In the field of forestry and land use
To protect existing natural forest areas in hilly and coastal areas so as to strictly control forest repurposing, deforestation and forest degradation for reducing greenhouse gas emissions; to plant protection forests and special-use forests with indigenous tree species to enhance carbon sequestration; to raise the quality and reserves of carbon of poor natural forests through additional planting and enrichment of forests so as to increase carbon sequestration.
To improve the productivity and quality of plantations to increase carbon sequestration and reduce emissions through the application of technical advances and transformation of short-cycle plantations to long-cycle plantations; to reduce logging of plantations for woodchip production.
To practice sustainable forest management and forest certification to reduce emissions through controlling deforestation and forest degradation, wildfires and biomass burning; to increase greenhouse gas absorption through improving forest quality, conserving biodiversity and increasing ecosystem services; to develop and widely apply combined agro-forestry models through additional planting of forest trees and timber trees to increase carbon sequestration and prevent soil degradation, with priority given to steep land areas.
- In the field of wastes
To implement measures to manage and minimize waste generation from production to consumption, and extend the responsibility of producers; to increase reuse and recycling of wastes.
To develop integrated management models for solid wastes; to apply advanced measures in solid waste treatment, including landfilling with landfill gas collection, semi-aerobic landfilling; production of composts from organic wastes; burning of solid wastes for power generation; and production of fuel pellets from solid wastes.
To apply advanced measures in waste and wastewater treatment in order to reduce methane emissions.
- In the field of industrial processes and use of industrial products
To innovate, develop and apply technologies in the production of building materials; to develop and use energy-efficient building materials and green materials in the fields of housing and commerce; to replace coal with natural gas in the production of tiles; to use alternative materials in glass production; to implement solutions for blower slag grinding, fly ash grinding, Puzzolana crushing and alternative limestone crushing, and reduce the rate of clinker in cement production.
To apply thermal decomposition technology and new technologies in order to reduce N2O emissions in the chemical sector; to apply carbon capture technology in the fields of cement production, chemicals-fertilizers and steel making; to apply molten oxide electrolysis technology in the field of steel making; to use hydrogen in replacement of coke in “green” steel making from 2035.
To complete the system of technical regulations and standards on green buildings and green cities, ensuring that by 2050 such technical regulations and standards are compulsory for all new construction works.
To gradually reduce the use of Hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbon (HCFC) and Hydro-fluoro-carbon (HFC) refrigerants in cold chains, refrigeration systems and air conditioners in buildings; to improve refrigeration efficiency, and reduce needs for cooling and refrigerant consumption through applying building design and passive cooling solutions; to promote the recovery, reuse, destruction and recycling of refrigerants and proceed to use refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP).
3. Improving institutions, bringing into full play potential and resources to effectively respond to climate change
a/ Formulating and improving institutions and policies
- To formulate and improve mechanisms, policies and laws on climate change and national standards and technical regulations in conformity with the goal of achieving the net-zero emissions by 2050; to review, amend and supplement specialized laws, strategies, master plans and development plans for the 2021-2030 period in conformity with the objectives set in the Strategy for climate change adaptation and greenhouse gas emission reduction; to limit energy-intensive industries with low GDP value, while not encouraging the export of energy-intensive products; to encourage hi-tech, low-energy industries; to restrict wood exploitation and export.
- To formulate a plan for implementation of the Glasgow Leaders’ Declaration on Forests and Land Use, and set a roadmap for transformation to use clean energy vehicles; to formulate a plan to implement the Global Coal to Clean Power Transition Statement; to complete national marine space policies and master plans serving offshore wind power development.
- To complete regulations, processes and technical instructions on greenhouse gas emission reduction, greenhouse gas inventory, “measurement, reporting and verification” systems of greenhouse gas emission reduction activities at national, sectoral and grassroots levels; to institutionalize the low-carbon development model and circular economy; to effectively apply carbon pricing instruments, including carbon taxes, greenhouse gas emission quota and carbon credit exchanges, connected to regional and world markets.
- To formulate and improve inter-regional and inter-sectoral coordination mechanisms in climate change response; mechanisms for state agencies, socio-political organizations and enterprises to perform responsibilities in climate change response; to complete regulations on management of climate change adaptation activities; to establish and operate a system for monitoring and evaluating climate change adaptation activities at national, sectoral and provincial levels; to promote the development of the climate risk insurance market; to work out climate risk assessment criteria; to identify climate change adaptation projects and tasks; to assess efficiency of climate change adaptation activities; to integrate contents on climate change adaptation and greenhouse gas emission reduction in urban development master plans in order to reduce needs for energy and natural resources and increase cities’ adaptability to climate change.
- To formulate and promulgate policies to promote investment in emission reduction in various sectors; trade and development policies to promote sustainable development and goods production and consumption without resulting in deforestation and forest degradation; sustainable agriculture, assurance of food security and prevention of harms to the environment.
b/ Carrying out public communication, raising awareness and attracting community participation
- To diversify forms of public communication, exploit advantages of digital technology and improve the quality of communication in the mass media in order to provide complete, accurate and timely information on hydro-meteorological forecasting and disaster forecasting and warning to governmental agencies at all levels, organizations and households.
- To formulate and implement national communication programs and organize training courses for authorities at all levels, social organizations and communities to improve their awareness and disseminate and update knowledge and information about disasters, climate change adaptation and greenhouse gas emission reduction toward the goal of net-zero emissions, and information on technology of the future and relevant skills; to guide and disseminate knowledge and train skills on disaster preparedness, especially response skills when serious and complex disaster situations occur.
- To conserve and promote traditional culture and local knowledge, paying special attention to the role of artisans in climate change response; to disseminate and widely carry out activities and models of application of environmentally friendly technologies, renewable technologies with the use of clean energy adaptable to climate change with low greenhouse gas emissions, and the models of community-based climate change adaptation and community-scale greenhouse gas emission reduction.
- To add, improve and update knowledge about climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction and greenhouse gas emission reduction into general education programs; to promote a climate-friendly lifestyle for forming a civilized lifestyle and protecting the Earth’s climate system.
- To carry out public communication and raise awareness about and engage communities in sustainable forest and forestry development, mangrove ecosystem recovery, development of community-based and nature-based livelihood models and climate change adaptation models while raising greenhouse gas absorption and biodiversity conservation capacity; to disseminate information on and encourage carbon labeling and use of products and services using clean, low-carbon and environmentally friendly energy instead of products and services using fossil fuels; to label products that do not use substances with GWP.
c/ Human resource development
- To formulate and implement training, further training and retraining programs on climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, and use of renewable energy and new energy; and education and training programs incorporating climate change response contents at all grades of education.
- To build capacity of enterprises in accessing, and participating in the implementation of, programs and projects under the mechanisms of carbon credit exchange and clearing and carbon market development.
- To research, survey, make statistics on, periodically forecast the demand for, and capacity to supply, human resources for climate change response; to disseminate and provide information on the climate change-related employment market.
- To develop a contingent of high-quality experts on greenhouse gas inventory, verification for greenhouse gas emission reduction, carbon market development, ozone layer protection and climate change adaptation to meet management requirements and conform to set roadmaps, domestic laws and treaties on climate change to which Vietnam is a contracting party.
d/ Science and technology development
- To review and improve mechanisms and policies related to promoting technology transfer and innovation to serve climate change response; to assess the need for greenhouse gas emission reduction technologies; to draw up a list of clean, low-carbon technologies in manufacturing industries to promote technology application and transfer and mobilize investment.
- To organize scientific research and technology application and transfer for ministries, sectors and localities to implement climate change response tasks and solutions in order to achieve the goal of net-zero emissions by 2050; to research and develop source technologies in climate change response; to propose policies to remove barriers for enterprises to invest in climate change response research; to promote low-emission research and development at enterprises and national groups; to form large groups with strong capacity in terms of scientific research and source technology mastery.
- To promote scientific research and technology development and transfer, giving priority to high, new and modern technologies in transforming clean energy production, ensuring energy efficiency; to use new fuels and materials that generate low emissions and are climate-friendly; to treat and dispose of wastes; to capture and landfill carbon; to effectively manage and exploit natural resources; to develop and apply renewable energy and new energy, and store energy; to acquire, apply and develop nuclear reactor technology; to develop plant varieties and animal breeds adaptable to climate change.
- To effectively apply cloud computing, big data, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and blockchain technologies, etc., in developing and implementing climate change response solutions and estimating and forecasting the impacts of climate change on natural and social systems in order to turn challenges into development opportunities and support ministries, sectors, localities, organizations and individuals to improve their climate change response capacity.
- To study additionally elaborating and updating standards and technical regulations on planning and designing of green buildings and infrastructure facilities, taking into account impacts of climate change in the long term; and standards and technical regulations related to new and renewable energy sources.
- To include solutions to apply greenhouse gas emission reduction and climate change adaptation technologies suitable to Vietnam’s conditions in national-level science and technology tasks to meet requirements of sectors, fields and localities; to prioritize studying and implementing climate change adaptation solutions in parallel with greenhouse gas emission reduction and socio-economic development.
dd/ Mobilizing financial resources for climate change response
- To review and revise mechanisms and policies to attract investment in climate change response, encouraging the participation of enterprises and the people in carrying out climate change adaptation, greenhouse gas emission reduction, building of low-emission communities, rational management and use of natural resources and environmental protection associated with sustainable livelihood development.
- To develop processes of allocating state budget funds and formulating public investment plans and state budget plans and estimates so as to ensure efficient allocation and use of funds for climate change response activities; to prioritize the allocation of investment resources from the state budget or the use of support, non-refundable aid and concessional loans to implement climate change adaptation facilities and projects in parallel with socio-economic development and greenhouse gas emission reduction.
- To formulate and apply investment incentive policies, mechanisms and economic instruments in order to tap social resources and effectively mobilize financial resources of the business circle for climate change response; to identify programs and projects that are likely to bring about high economic efficiency and contribute to achieving climate change response goals for enterprises to implement in the forms of cooperation between the State and enterprises or between domestic investors and foreign investors, prioritizing projects applying technologies and solutions to convert from fossil fuels to renewable energy, and improve energy efficiency.
- To review and revise mechanisms and policies to remove procedure-related inadequacies and attract investment and green financial flows of international financial institutions and credit institutions into Vietnam; to attract international groups and multinational groups to cooperate in implementing projects, particularly projects on energy generation and consumption transformation, in Vietnam.
- To formulate regulations on and provide guidelines for monitoring financial resources and supporting climate change response in conformity with Vietnam’s law, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Paris Agreement and international financial mechanisms for climate change response to which Vietnam is a contracting party.
e/ Intensifying international cooperation in climate change response
- To promote climate diplomacy and proactively participate in regional and global cooperation mechanisms on climate change response, particularly climate finance mechanisms; to improve the effectiveness of bilateral and multilateral foreign affairs, including enhancing cooperation on climate change response at global, regional and sub-regional mechanisms; to stay connected with governments, organizations, financial institutions, localities, foreign enterprises and international campaigns to exchange information, share experiences, knowledge and management skills and mobilize support of development partners and foreign organizations and individuals for climate change response and low-emission and sustainable development on the principles of equality, cooperation and mutual benefit.
- To fulfill obligations under treaties to which Vietnam is a contracting party; to actively participate in, make substantive contributions to, and proactively propose new ideas and initiatives at regional and international mechanisms of which Vietnam is a member; to participate in the process of initiating and promoting new cooperation mechanisms; to negotiate for establishment of partnerships and cooperation mechanisms to attract resources and international support for Vietnam’s implementation of international commitments on climate change response.
- To promote international cooperation in research, development and application of potential greenhouse gas emission reduction technologies, such as carbon capture and storage, development of green hydrogen energy, batteries, nuclear power and other new potential energy sources; to implement climate change and sea level rise adaptation solutions; to forecast, warn and respond appropriately to the cross-border impacts of climate change response activities in the world; to periodically update and implement the Nationally Determined Contribution, national plans for climate change adaptation and national reports on climate change.
V. ORGANIZATION OF IMPLEMENTATION
1. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
- To assume the prime responsibility for, and coordinate with ministries, ministerial-level agencies, government-attached agencies and provincial-level People’s Committees in, organizing the implementation of the Strategy nationwide; to make 5-year and 10-year reviews and propose the Prime Minister to decide on adjustment of the Strategy as suitable to reality.
- To assume the prime responsibility for, and coordinate with ministries, sectors and localities in, identifying key and focal programs, projects and tasks to realize international commitments on climate change and achieve the goal of net-zero emissions in each period, and submit them to the Prime Minister for consideration and decision. To guide the incorporation of climate change response contents into development strategies and master plans.
- To assume the prime responsibility for guiding, inspecting, monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the Strategy and send annual, 5-year, 10-year and final-review reports on implementation of the Strategy to the Prime Minister.
2. The Ministry of Planning and Investment
- To assume the prime responsibility for, and coordinate with ministries, sectors and localities in, reviewing and updating 10-year national strategies and master plans and 5-year socio-economic development plans, ensuring synchrony and consistency with the set objectives.
- To assume the prime responsibility for reviewing, amending and supplementing investment mechanisms and policies and regulations on the management and use of official development assistance and concessional loans of foreign donors to remove procedural obstacles and facilitate the attraction of development investment and green finance of international financial institutions and credit institutions into Vietnam.
- To assume the prime responsibility for, and coordinate with related ministries and sectors in, balancing and allocating development investment capital from the central budget for climate change response activities; to mobilize and coordinate domestic and foreign donation sources for implementation of the Strategy.
3. The Ministry of Finance
- To assume the prime responsibility for, and coordinate with related ministries, sectors and agencies in, reviewing, adjusting, and submitting to competent authorities for approval, policies on finance and investment, and support and facilitate the implementation of the Strategy.
- To balance and allocate state budget funds and funds for regular expenditures for implementation of the Strategy in accordance with law.
4. The Ministries of Industry and Trade, Transport, Agriculture and Rural Development, and Construction
- To review, amend and supplement specialized laws, and sectoral strategies, master plans and plans in conformity with the goals of climate change adaptation and greenhouse gas emission reduction ; to formulate and implement plans on greenhouse gas emission reduction in all fields according to the roadmap to achieve the net-zero emissions by 2050.
- To build the capacity to implement the Paris Agreement and Vietnam’s statements and commitments at the COP26. To improve regulations, processes and technical guidelines on greenhouse gas inventory and the measurement, reporting and verification system for greenhouse gas emission reduction activities at sectoral and grassroots levels.
- To organize sector-based greenhouse gas inventory and make reports serving national-level greenhouse gas inventory in accordance with law.
- To develop national standards and technical regulations on greenhouse gas emission reduction and greenhouse gas inventory; and standards and technical regulations in relevant fields in conformity with the goal of achieving the net-zero emissions by 2050.
5. Ministries, ministerial-level agencies and government-attached agencies
- To formulate and promulgate their action plans on climate change response for every 10 years according to their management fields; to incorporate objectives, tasks and solutions into sector development strategies, master plans and plans falling under their management as suitable to reality.
- To organize, monitor and evaluate the implementation of the tasks set out in the Strategy according to their competence, ensuring consistency and synchrony; to prioritize the allocation of budget funds for activities for organization of implementation of the Strategy.
- To proactively develop and implement communication, awareness raising and training activities on climate change response according to their assigned functions and tasks.
6. Provincial-level People’s Committees
- To formulate and promulgate provincial-level action plans on climate change response for every 10 years; to incorporate objectives, tasks and solutions into provincial master plans and socio-economic development plans as suitable to reality of localities.
- To bring into play potential and advantages of localities to implement tasks and solutions for climate change adaptation and greenhouse gas emission reduction, and participate in programs and projects under the carbon credit exchange and clearing mechanism.
- To organize the evaluation of impacts, vulnerability, risks, losses and damage caused by climate change; to strengthen inspection and supervision of greenhouse gas emission reduction activities of greenhouse gas-emitting facilities operating in localities.
- To organize, monitor and evaluate the implementation of the tasks set out in the Strategy within the ambit of their competence; to prioritize the allocation of budget funds for activities for organization of implementation of the Strategy.
- To develop and implement communication, awareness raising and training activities for, and restructure the contingent of cadres, civil servants and public employees engaged in the climate change response work in localities.
7. Research institutes and universities shall, based on the tasks and solutions set out in the Strategy, develop, propose to ministries, sectors and localities, and carry out research, application and teaching contents in their respective fields, thus contributing to the promotion of climate change adaptation and greenhouse gas emission reduction.
8. The Vietnam Fatherland Front, socio-political organizations, socio-professional organizations, and the business community shall, within the ambit of their functions and tasks, proactively participate in climate change response activities; and actively coordinate with ministries, sectors and localities in organizing, monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the Strategy.
9. Stakeholders, including the business community, social organizations, non-governmental organizations, and domestic and international organizations are encouraged to coordinate with ministries, sectors and localities in and proactively implement and propose initiatives for promoting climate change adaptation and greenhouse gas emission reduction, and participate in the process of monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the Strategy.
VI. RESOURCES FOR IMPLEMENTATION
Funds for implementation of the Strategy come from the state budget, capital of organizations and individuals, international donations and other lawfully mobilized funding sources in accordance with law.
- For funds from the state budget, current regulations on state budget management decentralization shall apply. Ministries, sectors and localities shall, based on the objectives and tasks stated in the Strategy, formulate investment projects or estimate funds for specific tasks and comply with current regulations.
- To promote the mobilization of financial resources from organizations, individuals and domestic and foreign enterprises participating in implementation of the Strategy in accordance with law; to incorporate tasks assigned to ministries, sectors and localities into other relevant national target programs.
Article 2. This Decision takes effect on the date of its singing and replaces the Prime Minister’s Decision No. 2139/QD-TTg of December 5, 2011, approving the National Climate Change Strategy.
Article 3. Ministers, heads of ministerial-level agencies, heads of government-attached agencies, chairpersons of provincial-level People’s Committees, and heads of related agencies shall implement this Decision.-
For the Prime Minister
Deputy Prime Minister
LE VAN THANH
 Công Báo Nos 655-656 (08/8/2022)