THE PRIME MINISTER
THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM
Independence - Freedom - Happiness
Hanoi, April 13, 2022
Approving the National Strategy for Environmental Protection through 2030, with a vision toward 2050
THE PRIME MINISTER
Pursuant to the June 19, 2015 Law on Organization of the Government; and the November 22, 2019 Law Amending and Supplementing a Number of Articles of the Law on Organization of the Government and the Law on Organization of Local Administration;
Pursuant to the November 17, 2020 Law on Environmental Protection;
At the proposal of the Minister of Natural Resources and Environment,
Article 1. To approve the National Strategy for Environmental Protection through 2030, with a vision toward 2050 (below referred to as the Strategy), with the following principal contents:
I. VIEWPOINTS, VISION AND OBJECTIVES
a/ The environment is a condition, foundation and prerequisite for sustainable socio-economic development; environmental protection is an objective and concurrently a task which must be placed at the center of development decisions; economic development must be in harmony with the nature and respectful of natural laws, and the environment may never be traded for economic growth.
b/ Environmental protection is the responsibility of the entire political system and the entire society, in which local administrations at all levels, enterprises, the community and the people jointly play an important role; environmental protection must be based on close, synchronous and unified coordination between authorities at all levels and sectors, and the best utilization of opportunities brought about by international integration and cooperation.
c/ The prime objective of environmental protection is to protect the people’s health; priority should be given to pollution prevention and control, focusing on settlement of strategic and urgent environmental issues; to remediate environmental pollution and degradation and improve environmental quality in combination with conservation of the nature and biodiversity, thus contributing to response to climate change.
d/ Environmental protection must be based on improved quality of institutions and effective and efficient law enforcement; to raise accountability, publicity, transparency and community supervision of environmental protection; to step up the reform of administrative procedures, innovation and application of achievements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and digital transformation; to intensify the application of the integrated management method and ecosystem-based, inter-regional and interdisciplinary approach, and develop a circular economy, green economy and low-carbon economy.
dd/ Investment in environmental protection is investment in sustainable development; to intensify the mobilization of social resources in association with increased allocation of budget funds for environmental protection; to effectively apply the principle that polluters shall pay expenses for pollution remediation and compensation for damage, and beneficiaries of environmental values shall pay charges; to continue increasing the participation of enterprises, organizations, the community and the people in environmental protection activities.
2. Vision toward 2050
Vietnam’s environment will be of good quality and the people’s right to live in a healthy and safe environment will be guaranteed; biodiversity will be maintained and conserved to ensure ecological balance; proactive response to climate change will be practiced; society will be in harmony with the nature and a circular economy, green economy and low-carbon economy will be formed and developed toward achieving the goal of carbon neutrality by 2050.
3. Objectives to be achieved by 2030
a/ General objectives
To ward off the trend of pollution and environmental degradation becoming worse; to solve urgent environmental issues; to step by step improve and restore the environmental quality; to prevent the biodiversity decline; to contribute to raising the capacity to proactively respond to climate change; to ensure environmental security, build and develop circular economy, green economy and low-carbon economy models, and strive for achievement of the country’s 2030 sustainable development goals.
b/ Specific objectives
- Adverse impacts causing environmental pollution and degradation and environmental incidents will be prevented and controlled in a proactive manner;
- Key and urgent environmental issues will be basically solved and environmental quality will be gradually improved and restored;
- Natural heritages will be better protected and ecosystems will be restored; the trend of biodiversity decline will be warded off;
- The ability to adapt to climate change will be improved and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will be stepped up.
Specific targets and roadmaps for supervision and evaluation of the implementation of the Strategy are provided in Appendix I to this Decision.
II. TASKS OF THE STRATEGY
1. Proactively preventing and controlling adverse environmental impacts and environmental incidents
a/ Developing an ecological, circular and green-growth economy, and boosting sustainable production and consumption
- To continue stepping up the transition to growth models based on improved productivity, scientific and technological advances, innovation and efficient use of natural resources, with a view to achieving the dual goals of economic growth and environmental pollution and degradation mitigation.
- To take the initiative in strictly controlling the process of industrialization toward environmental friendliness; to greenize industrial production sectors and promote the development of green industries, hi-tech industries and eco-industrial parks; to encourage the use of environmentally friendly raw materials, fuels and materials.
- To promote the development of ecological agriculture, hi-tech agriculture and organic agriculture; to intensify the reuse of agricultural by-products; to limit the use of inorganic fertilizers, chemical pesticides and antibiotics in cultivation, animal husbandry and aquaculture.
- To carry out sustainable urbanization and develop urban centers in association with the development of technical infrastructure facilities for environmental protection; to attach importance to developing green spaces, green works, ecological cities and smart cities resilient to climate change.
- To step up the implementation of environmental protection contents in the national target program on building of a new-style countryside; to control pollution and develop model residential areas and streets, build green, clean and beautiful environmental landscapes; to maintain and improve the environmental quality in rural areas.
- To incorporate circular economy and green economy models in socio-economic development strategies, master plans, plans, programs, schemes and projects; to implement the national action program on sustainable production and consumption in the 2021-2030 period under the Prime Minister’s Decision No. 889/QD-TTg of June 24, 2020.
b/ Zoning off environmental areas, and raising efficiency of strategic environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and environmental license-based management
- To zone off environmental areas with appropriate orientations for socio-economic development activities; to establish mechanisms for control and prevention of development activities harmful to the environment in each zone, attaching special importance to strictly protected zones and low-emission zones.
- To review and improve regulations on, and continue improving efficiency of, the strategic environmental assessment work in order to minimize development orientations set forth in strategies and master plans that are harmful to the environment.
- To classify new investment projects based on their level of environmental impacts right from the stage of investment policy approval in order to control them throughout the course of operation, attaching special importance to groups of projects that are highly likely to exert adverse environmental impacts.
- To control environmental pollution from production, business and service establishments through environmental licenses and based on environmental impact assessment results, environmental protection master plans, load-bearing capacity of the environment, and relevant environmental technical regulations.
c/ Taking the initiative in controlling establishments highly likely to cause environmental pollution; preventing adverse environmental impacts
- To classify production, business and service establishments by their likelihood to cause environmental pollution; to concentrate efforts on strictly controlling groups of establishments that are highly likely to cause environmental pollution and generate large waste volumes; to implement roadmaps of application of the best available techniques (BAT) to production, business and service activities likely to cause environmental pollution.
- To formulate roadmaps and implement according to these roadmaps solutions to ensure environmentally safe distances from residential areas to production, business and service establishments and warehouses containing flammable, explosive, radioactive or hazardous substances likely to adversely impact human health or cause water source pollution.
- To strictly control persistent organic pollutants (POP) and persistent toxic substances (PTS).
- To resolutely deal with seriously polluting establishments.
d/ Taking the initiative in preventing and responding to environmental incidents and controlling cross-border environmental issues
- To formulate and implement plans on response to environmental incidents at all levels and in establishments prone to environmental incidents; to organize drills and maneuvers to respond to environmental incidents.
- To realize the “four on-spot” motto (on-spot commanding, on-spot forces, on-spot vehicles and materials, and on-spot logistics) for unity, close coordination, publicity of information and mobilization of the community’s participation in response to environmental incidents.
- To proactively prevent and respond to environmental incidents at sea and on islands, toxic chemical incidents, and oil spills at sea and on rivers; to enhance the management of safety of chemicals and radioactive and nuclear substances.
- To intensify the application of measures to prevent illegal import of wastes as scraps and import of old and obsolete technologies that consume large amounts of materials and energy and cause environmental pollution.
- To observe, monitor and proactively prevent and respond to inter-country air, seawater and river water environment pollution incidents, and cross-border radiation and nuclear safety incidents, and environment-related epidemics.
2. Addressing key and urgent environmental issues; remediating environmental pollution and degradation; maintaining and improving environmental quality and sanitation
a/ Enhancing the control of pollution, and maintain and improve quality of the air environment in urban centers
- To formulate and implement national- and provincial-level plans on air environment quality management, paying special attention to major cities and air environment pollution hotspots.
- To vigorously develop the system of automatic air monitoring stations in major cities; to regularly give warnings and publicize information on air environment quality in special-grade and grade-I cities.
- To accelerate the construction of the mass rapid transit (MRT) system, and inhibit the increase of personal vehicles in major cities; to intensify the building and expansion of areas of parks and greeneries, thereby mitigating noise pollution in urban centers and residential areas.
- To enhance the control of emissions of motor vehicles, review and improve, and set the schedule of application of, national standards and technical regulations on emissions of road motor vehicles; to gradually raise fuel consumption standards.
- To promote the use of environmentally friendly non-motorized vehicles (bicycles, electric bikes, clean-fuel vehicles, renewable energy-powered vehicles); to work out and implement a roadmap for phasing out fossil-fuel vehicles and environment-polluting vehicles.
- To control and prevent violations in the management and improvement of standards in order to raise petrol and oil quality, particularly standards of diesel oil; to develop and widely use biofuels and clean and environmentally friendly fuels.
- To control and prevent dust pollution caused by urban construction projects; to control the burning of crop by-products on suburban fields; to work out a roadmap to phase out the people’s use of honeycomb charcoal stoves in urban centers; to formulate and apply regulations and standards on protection of indoor air environment.
- To enhance the control of industrial establishments that discharge large amounts of greenhouse gas emissions such as thermal power, cement, steel and chemical plants; to promote the application of clean technologies and economical and efficient use of materials, fuels and energies.
b/ Enhancing the management of solid wastes and hazardous wastes
- To intensify the development and application of circular economy models throughout the product lifecycle from the stages of designing, production, distribution and consumption to the stage of waste management; to formulate and implement the action plan on circular economy.
- To concentrate investment in the management of domestic solid wastes in special-grade and grade-I cities; to organize the at-source waste sorting and collection of charges based on generated solid waste volumes in order to intensify waste reduction, reuse and recycling.
- To intensify the reduction, collection, reuse and recycling of solid wastes through developing and applying models of sharing economy and business based on digital platforms and leasing services.
- To intensify investment in and modernization of waste collection equipment and devices and waste transit stations in urban centers, and expand the network of solid waste collection services in rural areas.
- To organize the effective and efficient implementation of regulations on extended producer responsibility (EPR) for recovery and recycling of discarded products and packaging.
- To promote the development of the reprocessing industry and form reprocessing industry zones; to promote investment in building reprocessing establishments with modern technologies; to gradually reduce manual, small-scale and polluting reprocessing establishments in craft villages.
- To set up a network of inter-regional and inter-provincial solid waste treatment facilities with technologies appropriate to each region or area; to intensify the application of modern and environmentally friendly technologies for waste co-treatment and waste treatment combined with energy recovery; to require payment of environmental protection deposits for waste landfilling activities, thereby gradually reducing direct landfilling of domestic solid wastes.
- To intensify the reduction, reuse, recycling, collection and treatment of plastic wastes. After 2025, not to use disposable plastic products and persistent plastic packaging at trade centers, department stores, hotels and tourist resorts. After 2030, to stop producing and importing disposable plastic products, persistent plastic packaging and products and goods that contain micro-plastics; to develop more environmentally friendly products and materials as substitutes for plastic products; to organize the efficient implementation of the Scheme on enhanced management of plastic wastes in Vietnam under the Prime Minister’s Decision No. 1316/QD-TTg of July 22, 2021.
- To intensify the reuse and recycling of construction solid wastes and normal industrial solid wastes up to environmental regulations and technical requirements; to reduce post-harvest loss in agriculture, and reduce, reuse and recycle food wastes.
- To further enhance the management of hazardous wastes in industrial production, agriculture and health sectors; to effectively prevent the illegal dumping of hazardous wastes; to step by step carry out the sorting, collection and treatment of hazardous wastes in domestic solid wastes; to attach importance to the management of e-wastes.
c/ Intensifying the treatment of wastewater, and enhancing the control, management and protection of the water environment and river basins
- To formulate and implement plans on management of surface water environment quality for rivers and lakes; to attach importance to environmental protection in river basins, particularly Nhue-Day, Cau, Ma, Vu Gia-Thu Bon and Dong Nai river basins.
- To intensify investment in systems for domestic wastewater collection and treatment in combination with reconditioning and restoration of lakes, ponds, canals and ditches in major cities; to implement projects on wastewater treatment and restoration of heavily polluted sections of such rivers, canals and ditches as To Lich and Set rivers (Hanoi) and Tan Hoa-Lo Gom, Tau Hu-Ben Nghe, and Xuyen Tam canals (Ho Chi Minh City), etc.
- To intensify the treatment of wastewater generated from agricultural production activities and craft villages; to apply non-concentrated wastewater treatment models for areas where wastewater collection is impossible; to boost the reuse of wastewater and sludge; to treat wastewater up to requirements in all industrial parks, clusters and establishments, and hospitals.
- To zone off, and evaluate the load-bearing capacity of, surface water areas and prescribe limits of wastewater to be discharged into the surface water environment; to implement measures to reduce polluting waste sources and restore the environment in rivers and lakes; to build works to regulate water flows so as to mitigate water environment pollution.
- To carry out survey and general assessment of the quality of groundwater sources, and identify heavily polluted areas; to devise and implement solutions to protect, and improve quality of, groundwater sources.
d/ Treating environmental pollution in craft villages, restoring the environment in areas contaminated with residual chemicals, and protecting the soil environment
- To incorporate the content on protection of craft village environment in the national target program on building of a new-style countryside and regional and provincial master plans; to implement mechanisms and policies to encourage and support the protection of craft village environment.
- To formulate and implement plans on, organize self-governance and build infrastructure facilities for environmental protection in craft villages; to enhance the control of environmental protection activities of production establishments and households in craft villages.
- To step by step transform sectors and trades involving production activities that are likely to cause environmental pollution or fire or explosion incidents or use obsolete technological lines, machinery and equipment; to relocate or transform business lines and trades of production establishments and households engaged in sectors and trades not encouraged for development.
- To intensify the treatment, remediation and restoration of the soil environment in polluted areas, spots containing residual chemicals and pesticides, and closed or relocated solid waste landfills; to complete the treatment of areas contaminated with dioxin used during the war in Bien Hoa airport (Dong Nai province), Phu Cat airport (Binh Dinh province) and A So airport (Thua Thien-Hue province); to sweep unexploded ordnance in heavily polluted areas.
- To survey, evaluate, classify and monitor soil environment quality changes; to formulate and implement plans on treatment, remediation and restoration of extremely heavily polluted soil areas.
dd/ Enhancing the control of marine and island environment pollution
- To control and prevent pollution in coastal areas; to invest in and consolidate infrastructure facilities and equipment and collect and treat hazardous wastes, wastewater and domestic solid wastes up to environmental technical regulations in the coastal localities.
- To take the initiative in preventing, mitigating and effectively treating pollutants from mineral mining, petroleum, transportation and fishing activities at sea; to identify areas prone to marine and island environment pollution, and strictly control ocean dumping activities; to formulate and implement schemes on protection and conservation of marine ecosystems associated with assurance of national defense and security.
- To continue implementing the Plan on implementation of Annexes III, IV, V and VI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships under the Prime Minister’s Decision No. 795/QD-TTg of May 11, 2016.
- To implement the National Action Plan for management of marine plastic litter by 2030 under the Prime Minister’s Decision No. 1746/QD-TTg of December 4, 2019.
- To develop and apply closed models for collection, sorting, reuse and treatment of wastewater, domestic solid wastes and hazardous wastes on islands, particularly big islands like Phu Quoc, Con Dao, and Cat Ba, etc.
e/ Continuing supplying clean water, ensuring the environmental sanitation and preventing environmental elements harmful to human health
- To take measures to ensure security of water sources, particularly domestic water sources; to research, control and prevent pollution of water sources caused by micro-plastics and microorganisms.
- To continue expanding the scope of clean water supply services and reducing loss of water in urban areas; to intensify investment in building clean water supply systems for rural inhabitants up to standards set out by the Ministry of Health.
- To intensify the implementation of environmental sanitation contents and solutions stated in the national target program on building of a new-style countryside; to continue building and practicing the civilized lifestyle and eliminating backward customs, and encourage the people to use cremation services.
- To take the initiative in preventing, responding to, and protecting the community’s wellbeing against, epidemics caused by environmental elements; to identify, give warnings about and treat sources emitting pollutants harmful to human health, such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dioxin, asbestos, etc., and proceeding to stop the use of construction materials that are likely to exert adverse impacts on human health and the environment.
3. Conserving the nature and biodiversity, and promoting environmental protection in the exploitation and use of natural resources
a/ Protecting the environment in natural heritages and expanding the system of protected areas and biodiversity corridors
- To establish, recognize and manage, and protect the environment in, natural heritages; to assess impacts of socio-economic development activities on natural heritages upon strategic environmental assessment and environmental impact assessment; to formulate, and organize the application of, biodiversity offset mechanisms, especially for forest and wetland ecosystems.
- To step up the founding of protected areas; to encourage organizations, enterprises, communities and individuals to invest in, establish, manage, use and sustainably develop natural heritages and voluntary biodiversity conservation zones.
- To efficiently manage protected areas, and ensure harmonious combination of conservation and development; to promote biodiversity valuation; to continue expanding the application of the mechanism for payment of ecosystem service charges for natural ecosystems, particularly forests, wetlands, seas, rocky mountains, caves and grottos, and geo-parks.
- To establish and sustainably manage biodiversity corridors connecting biotopes accommodating endangered, precious and rare species prioritized for protection.
b/ Protecting and restoring ecosystems
- To incorporate natural ecosystem protection and restoration contents in development policies, strategies, master plans, programs and plans; to intensify the application of models of conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems; to attach importance to conservation and development of urban biodiversity.
- To formulate and implement programs and plans on restoration and sustainable use of degraded ecosystems, particularly forest, coral reef, seagrass and wetland ecosystems; to manage coral reefs based on their restorability.
- To manage, strictly protect and restore natural forests; to continue banning the exploitation of timber from natural forests; to effectively prevent the illegal exploitation of wild plants and animals and deforestation; to raise the forest fire prevention and fighting capacity, thereby reducing the number of forest fires and forest area burnt during forest fires.
- To promote the combination of conservation with development, and continue allocating forest areas to households and communities; to enhance the sustainable forest management; to formulate a mechanism for combined exploitation of economic values of forests for poverty reduction and socio-economic development, and organize the pilot implementation of the policy on growing of medicinal plants under the forest canopy.
- To organize the implementation of the programs and schemes of the Strategy for development of Vietnam’s forestry in the 2021-2030 period, with a vision toward 2050, approved under the Prime Minister’s Decision No. 523/QD-TTg of April 1, 2021.
c/ Preventing the decline of species and genetic resources, and ensuring biosafety
- To continue formulating and implementing programs on conservation of endangered, precious and rare wild animal species and plants and domestic animals prioritized for protection; to develop the system of ex-situ conservation facilities, animal rescue centers, zoological gardens, botanical gardens and herb gardens.
- To enhance the prevention of illegal exploitation, hunting, fishing and trading of wild, specious and rare fauna and flora; to strictly control the breeding of wild animals; to regularly update the list of endangered, precious and rare species prioritized for protection.
- To step up the conservation of precious, rare, endemic and endangered genetic resources; to promote accessibility to genetic resources and sharing of benefits; to develop and market products from genetic resources in conformity with relevant treaties; to intensify the registration of ownership of traditional knowledge about genetic resources; to build a database on genetic resources and develop a gene bank system.
- To intensify the control and prevention of introduction and development and mitigate impacts caused by invasive alien organisms; to continue controlling risks brought about by genetically modified organisms, attaching importance to the management of import, and the licensing and propagation of genetically modified organisms, particularly food crops such as maize and soybean.
d/ Enhancing environmental protection in the exploitation and use of natural resources; protecting and developing natural capital sources
- To apply technical advances in agricultural production in order to protect and improve the soil fertility; to attach importance to the prevention and control of erosion, desertification, soil degradation, saltwater intrusion, and river bank and coast erosion, particularly in the coastal areas of the South Central Coast and the Mekong River delta regions.
- To enhance the integrated management of water resources in different river basins in association with the conservation of biodiversity and aquatic ecosystems, and the protection, exploitation and use of water resources; to promote the economical and efficient use of water resources in production and daily life.
- To control and prevent environmental pollution and degradation as well as environmental incidents in mineral exploitation and processing activities; to control hazardous mineral areas; to effectively and efficiently implement regulations on payment of deposits for environmental restoration; to utilize the environment restored after mineral exploitation for socio-economic development purposes.
- To continue controlling, preventing and eliminating forms of overfishing; to enhance the co-management and application of eco-certificates and development of models of aquaculture combined with sustainable cultivation.
- To intensify investment in the protection and development of natural capital sources; to incorporate environmental protection and biodiversity conservation requirements in master plans on exploitation and use of natural resources; to strictly control the repurposing of forest land, water surface and sea surface areas.
4. Taking the initiative in protecting the environment in order to contribute to raising the capacity to adapt to climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions
a/ Promoting environmental protection in order to reduce vulnerability and raise resilience to climate change
- To develop a set of indicators and assess the sensitivity and resilience of the natural environment system to impacts of climate change; to research, give warnings, and assess climate change risks in environmental impact assessment for investment projects.
- To assess impacts, losses and damage caused by climate change to the environment, biodiversity and ecosystems based on climate change and socio-economic development scenarios.
- To review, devise and multiply ecosystem-based (EbA) climate change adaptation solutions and models, nature-based solutions (NbS), biodiversity conservation and environmental restoration solutions suitable to different regions, areas and localities.
- To continue organizing the planting, zoning off and regeneration of forests, particularly headwater forests in river basins, mangrove forests and coastal protection forests; to efficiently implement the Scheme on planting of 1 billion trees in the 2021-2025 period under the Prime Minister’s Decision No. 524/QD-TTg of April 1, 2021.
- To incorporate climate change response solutions in environmental protection strategies, master plans, plans, programs and projects; to build technical infrastructure facilities for environmental protection that are resilient to impacts of climate change.
b/ Developing renewable energies and clean fuels, enhancing the integrated management of solid wastes, and protecting and developing ecosystems in order to reduce emissions and increase the absorbability of greenhouse gases
- To promote the development of renewable energies, use of clean fuels and environmentally friendly non-baked building materials, and gradually limit the development of coal-fired thermal power plants; to control ozone layer-depleting substances from production and consumption activities.
- To develop and apply circular economy models and perform integrated management of solid wastes; to intensify the reduction, reuse and recycling of wastes and treatment/disposal of wastes combined with recovery of energy, and minimize the landfilling of solid wastes; to control and reduce the emission of methane gas from solid waste landfills.
- To develop and multiply models of low-carbon economy development and models of livelihood associated with biodiversity conservation, and develop natural ecosystems.
- To implement the National Program on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ Program); to conserve and increase carbon deposits and sustainably manage forest resources (under the REDD+ Program) through 2030 approved under the Prime Minister’s Decision No. 419/QD-TTg of April 5, 2017.
III. SOLUTIONS TO IMPLEMENT THE STRATEGY
1. Changing the mindset of authorities at all levels and of all sectors; improving the awareness about and sense of environmental protection of enterprises, communities and the people
- To disseminate, and improve the awareness of authorities at all levels and of all sectors about, the viewpoint that considers the environment a condition, foundation and prerequisite for sustainable socio-economic development under the Political Bureau’s Conclusion No. 56-KL/TW of August 23, 2019, on continued implementation of the Resolution of the 7th Plenum of the Party Central Committee (the 11th Congress), on proactive response to climate change, and enhanced management of natural resources and environmental protection; to step by step change the awareness and mindset of authorities at all levels and of all sectors about the role of environmental protection in the formulation of development policies.
- To clearly define the responsibility of authorities at all levels and of all sectors, particularly local administrations, for environmental protection; to apply the environmental protection criterion to the evaluation of performance by heads of units; to organize the evaluation and ranking of environmental protection results of localities.
- To intensify the education about environmental ethics and love for the nature, and build the environmental protection culture of Vietnamese people; to include environmental protection contents in educational programs at all grades and training levels; to intensify training in environmental majors; to develop advanced and typical environmental protection models in education institutions.
- To promote enterprises’ sense of law observance and proper performance of the social responsibility for environmental protection; to improve the awareness and knowledge about circular economy, green economy and low-carbon economy; to encourage enterprises to conform to environmental standards and implement their voluntary environmental commitments; to carry out annual evaluation and ranking of sustainably developing enterprises.
- To continue intensifying the public communication about environmental protection in the mass media; to increase and bring into full play advantages of new communication technologies, social networks and online forums, etc.; to improve the awareness of residential communities about environmental protection and translate their awareness into environmental protection actions; to build and develop a green lifestyle and sense of observance of regulations on environmental protection, especially in waste management and environmental sanitation.
- To find out, praise exemplary models, and promptly commend and reward good persons and good deeds in the field of environmental protection, multiply good environmental protection models, and launch environmental protection movements; to continue considering candidates to be conferred with the Vietnam Environmental Prize on a regular basis.
- To improve the awareness about gender equality and children’s rights in the field of environmental protection; to heighten the role and position of women in environmental protection.
2. Continuing improving the system of policies and regulations on environmental protection in conformity with market economy institutions
- To review and revise the 2008 Law on Biodiversity, the 2015 Law on Marine and Island Resources and Environment, and relevant laws; to formulate legal documents guiding the 2020 Law on Environmental Protection; to study and implement on a pilot basis new policies; to continue improving the laws on protection of air, water and soil environments, management of solid wastes, efficient use of natural resources, and response to climate change.
- To establish mechanisms and policies for development of the environmental commodity and service market and the emission allowance and carbon credit trading market; to review and improve regulations on environmental service taxes, charges and prices; to formulate and improve mechanisms for payment of deposits for environmental protection and ecosystem service charges, and biodiversity offsets, etc.
- To review, revise and improve incentive mechanisms and policies to support environmentally friendly production, business and service activities and eco-products; to support environmental pollution treatment and environmental remediation activities; to formulate and implement regulations on green procurement.
- To formulate and implement the national master plan on environmental protection and the national master plan on biodiversity conservation , and implement environmental protection components in national, regional and provincial master plans.
- To improve the system of environmental standards and technical regulations toward conformity with those of developed countries; to encourage localities, particularly Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, to apply technical regulations stricter than national environmental technical regulations.
3. Improving the organizational apparatus for, and stepping up the reform of administrative procedures in, environmental protection activities
- To further consolidate the organizational apparatus of the system of agencies in charge of environmental management from the central to local levels, ensuring their uniformity, professionalism, and effective and efficient operation; to review and address overlaps, shortcomings and conflicts in functions and tasks and clearly define the responsibility of ministries, sectors, and central and local authorities for state management of the environment.
- To step up the decentralization of powers to and increase responsibility of local administrations for environmental protection and, at the same time, build capacity for provincial-, district- and commune-level administrations, and consolidate connectivity between regions and localities in environmental protection.
- To step up the reform and simplification of environment-related administrative procedures toward more effective and efficient state management and fewer legal risks and compliance costs for the people and enterprises; to step by step renew management methods toward reducing “pre-licensing inspection” and increasing “post-licensing inspection”, and raise enterprises’ sense of proactivity and accountability for environmental protection.
4. Enhancing the enforcement of environmental protection policies and laws
- To review and increase administrative sanctioning and fine levels; to revise and improve regulations and criminally handle environment-related violations showing signs of crimes.
- To intensify examination and supervision of production and business establishments that are highly likely to cause environmental pollution; to intensify the application of the mechanism for unscheduled inspection upon detection of signs of violation; to promote efficient coordination between inspection agencies and the environmental police force.
- To intensify the provision, publicity and transparency of information about environmental management to the community and at the same time raise the accountability of officers of environmental management agencies at all levels.
- To enhance the supervision of environmental protection activities by the community, Vietnam Fatherland Front, organizations, individuals and media agencies; to develop and apply digital platforms, social networks and hotlines, etc., in order to enhance environmental monitoring.
- To formulate and implement mechanisms for settlement of environment-related complaints, denunciations and disputes and for determination of liability to pay compensation for environmental damage.
- To build the environmental management capacity of enterprises and industrial parks and clusters.
5. Mobilizing social investment, gradually increasing budget expenditures and improving the use efficiency of resources for environmental protection
- To review, revise and improve mechanisms and policies for mobilization of investment from non-budget sources for environmental protection, regulations on bidding for public-utility environmental services; to vigorously apply public-private partnership (PPP) forms, promote the participation of sole proprietorships in environmental protection activities, and equitize state enterprises engaged in environmental protection activities.
- To gradually increase the rate of state budget expenditures for environmental protection corresponding to the national economic growth rate; to review, revise and improve state budget spending items, with priority given to building the capacity to manage and settle key and urgent environmental issues.
- To step by step form and develop a capital market for environmental protection activities; to formulate and improve regulations and standards on green credit and green bonds; to promote the role of the Vietnam Environmental Protection Fund, and facilitate the founding of private funds to finance the community’s environmental protection initiatives.
- To promulgate mechanisms and policies to promote the development of environmental industries and services that are capable of settling and addressing environmental issues; to attach importance to developing the capacity to provide environmental services, particularly recycling and treating wastes and treating environmental pollution.
- To proactively propose environmental protection projects in order to attract investment resources from financial funds, international organizations and other countries around the world.
- To formulate mechanisms for, and develop criteria and process for selection of, projects on environmental protection, green growth and climate change response in order to ensure their uniformity, synchrony and efficiency.
6. Radically applying scientific and technological advances, promoting innovation and digital transformation; building technical infrastructure facilities and environmental monitoring networks and databases
- To step up innovation and digital transformation; to innovate and renew technologies, and apply the BAT and high technologies in all sectors and fields.
- To efficiently apply scientific and technological achievements and achievements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, information technology, remote-sensing technology and modern technologies in environmental management, monitoring, examination and supervision and giving of environmental warnings; to intensify the provision of online public services with regard to environment-related administrative procedures.
- To develop technical infrastructure facilities for collection and treatment of wastewater; to collect, store, transport, reuse, recycle and dispose of solid wastes and hazardous wastes in a synchronous and efficient manner without causing environmental pollution.
- To formulate and implement the National Master Plan on Environmental Monitoring for the 2021-2030 period; to develop environmental monitoring networks of the country, localities and enterprises toward modernity and synchronism; to implement national, sectoral and local environmental quality and biodiversity monitoring programs, attaching importance to key economic regions, areas where waste sources are dense, and environmentally sensitive areas.
- To develop uniform, synchronous, updated and shared environmental databases that are interconnected among authorities at all levels and all sectors; to ensure timely provision of environmental information; to step by step digitalize environmental databases and information.
- To continue intensifying scientific and technological research and application in environmental protection activities; to invest in physical foundations and human resources for research institutes, universities and environmental consultancy units.
7. Promoting international cooperation in environmental protection in the context of intensive and extensive international integration of the economy
- To take the initiative in participating in negotiation for and realization of commitments in environmental treaties to which Vietnam is a contracting party, especially in such issues as climate change, biodiversity, marine plastic litter, etc.; to implement the Scheme on Vietnam’s proactive preparation for and participation in the compilation of the Global Agreement on Combating Marine Plastic Pollution as approved under the Prime Minister’s Decision No. 1407/QD-TTg of August 16, 2021; to intensify bilateral and multilateral cooperation; to step up the implementation of cooperation agreements and international projects on environmental protection.
- To grasp opportunities brought about by the intensive and extensive international integration, and realize commitments in the free trade agreements (FTAs) so as to boost environmental protection; to apply technical barriers to prevent negative environmental impacts of the integration process.
- To attach importance to cooperation with neighboring and regional countries on cross-border environmental issues such as protection of water, marine and air environment, management of marine plastic litter, radioactive and nuclear safety, control of illegal hunting and trading of wild animals and plants and invasive alien organisms.
IV. KEY PROGRAMS, PLANS AND SCHEMES
1. Program on public communication, improvement of awareness and change of the mindset about response to climate change, management of natural resources and environmental protection.
2. National scientific and technological program on environmental protection, management of natural resources and response to climate change.
3. Program on building of the environment monitoring capacity through 2030.
4. National plan on management of the air environment quality.
5. Scheme on building of the domestic solid waste management capacity in Vietnam.
6. Program on investment in and renovation of water drainage and domestic wastewater treatment facilities in urban centers of grade V or higher grade.
7. Plan on surface water environment quality management for inter-provincial rivers and lakes that are important to socio-economic development and environmental protection in each period.
8. Scheme on treatment of environmental pollution in craft villages through 2030.
9. Plan on treatment, remediation and restoration of particularly heavily polluted soil areas.
10. Program on environmental protection in agricultural production through 2030.
11. Program on environmental protection in natural heritages.
12. Program on restoration of degraded natural ecosystems through 2030.
Article 2. Plans on, resources for, and organization of the implementation of the Strategy
1. Plans on formulation of key programs, plans and schemes of the Strategy are provided in Appendix II to this Decision.
2. Funds for the implementation of the Strategy come from the state budget, investment of enterprises, the private sector and the community, and foreign funding sources.
3. Assignment of responsibility to implement the Strategy
a/ The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment shall act as the focal point in performing the unified state management of environmental protection and assume the prime responsibility for, and coordinate with ministries, sectors and localities in, striving to implement the objectives, tasks, solutions and key programs, plans and schemes of the Strategy.
b/ The Ministry of Planning and Investment and Ministry of Finance shall coordinate with the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment in balancing and allocating funds from the state budget and other sources for the efficient implementation of contents of the Strategy.
c/ Ministries and ministerial-level agencies shall, within the ambit of their tasks and powers, strive to implement the objectives, tasks and solutions; formulate, submit to the Prime Minister for approval, and organize the implementation of, key programs, plans and schemes of the Strategy.
d/ Provincial-level People’s Committees shall organize the implementation of objectives, tasks and solutions; and coordinate with one another in organizing the implementation of key programs, plans and schemes of the Strategy in their localities. Provincial-level People’s Councils shall allocate local budget funds for implementation of contents of the Strategy falling under responsibility of localities in accordance with regulations on decentralization for state budget management.
dd/ The Vietnam Fatherland Front, Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry, socio-political organizations, socio-professional organizations, media agencies, enterprises and the people shall participate in protecting the environment, give constructive criticism on environmental protection policies, and supervise environmental protection activities.
4. Supervision and assessment of the implementation of the Strategy
a/ Ministries, ministerial-level agencies, and provincial-level People’s Committees shall supervise, examine and review the implementation of environmental protection objectives, tasks and solutions in the fields and areas under their management, incorporate them in annual environmental protection reports under regulations, and send them to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment for summarization.
b/ The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment shall examine, supervise, urge and sum up the implementation of the Strategy; make annual reports on environmental protection nationwide; and organize 5-year preliminary review and 10-year review of the implementation of the Strategy for reporting to the Prime Minister.
Article 3. This Decision takes effect on the date of its signing.
The Minister of Natural Resources and Environment, other ministers, heads of ministerial-level agencies, heads of government-attached agencies, chairpersons of provincial-level People’s Committees, and heads of related agencies shall implement this Decision.-
For the Prime Minister
Deputy Prime Minister
LE VAN THANH
* The Appendices to this Decision are not translated.
 Công Báo Nos 319-320 (23/4/2022)